Iodine Benefits, Dosage, Deficiency, Sources
Iodine is very essential for proper health. It's deficiency can cause several problems like mental retardation, enlarged thyroid gland, defective speech and many other serious effects.
Date: 10/25/2006 6:13:08 AM ( 17 y ) ... viewed 3729 times
Iodine was discovered in burnt sea weed in 1811 by B. Courtois, and isolated in 1819 by Fyfe. It was fond in 1896 by E. Baumann that the thyroid gland was very rich in Iodine when compared with the other tissues. Iodine was one of the first minerals recognized as vital for good health.
Iodine is am important trace element for healthy thyroid gland, which kills harmful germs, makes up it own hormone (thyroxin) and rebuilds energy. It is required for the synthesis of the thyroxin hormones-thyroxin and triodothyronine. It is present in the secretions of thyroid gland.
Iodine is grayish black in colour, and gives corrosive fumes of a rich violet colour on heating.
Recommended Daily Allowance: The RDA IS 80 mcg for children and 150 mcg for adults. The requirement for growing children, pregnant and lactating women is more. Excess of Iodine will cause nasal moisture.
Dietary Sources: Iodine is available in traces in water, food, common salts. It is very rarely found in high mountains and altitudes. Iodine found in sea-water is 0.2 mg per litre. Sea weeds and spongy shells are very rich in Iodine. The best sources are sea fish, ser salt, green vegetables and leaves like spinach grown on iodine rich soil. The common sources are milk, meat, and cereals. About 90% of the Iodine intake is obtained from the food consumed, and the remainder from the water. Common salt fortified with small quantities of sodium or potassium iodate is now compulsorily made available in the market as Iodised Salt to check goitre. Iodised poppyseed oil is also used where salt iodisation is not possible.
Rice sources of Iodine in mcg per 100 gm of edible portion of food: Egg-9, Spinach-20, Sea foods-30 to 300, Iodised salt-7600.
Certain vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower and radish contain glucosinolates (thiogluosides) which are potential goitrogens. Eating too much of these foods inhibit the availability of Iodine to the body from the food and thus lead to development of goitre. Consumption of water containing chlorine will also have Iodine lost of the body.
Functions in the Body: Dietary organic Iodine taken by mouth is readily absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract into the blood. The iodine metabolism is controlled by thyroid. Iodine is an essential life. The total quantity in body is 25 mg, and half of it is in the thyroid as thyroglobulin, a complex of protein and iodine. About 30% is removed by the thyroid gland for the synthesis of the thyroid hormone, thyroxin, and the rest is excreted by the kidneys. Its concentration in thyroid gland is very high as compared to that in muscles and blood.
Iodine is present in blood as inorganic iodine in the plasma and corpuscles and varies from 0.5-1.0 mcg per 100 ml. And also as bound iodine-Thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine in the plasma in combination with alpha-globulin. It is called protein-bound iodine and is 5-8 mcg per 100 ml.
Thyroxin, the thyroid hormone, controls the basic metabolism and oxygen consumption of tissues. It controls the utilization of sugars. It regulates the rate of energy production, and promotes proper growth. Iodine reduces tension, keeps body and mind calm, and keeps skin, hair, teeth, nail etc in healthy condition and form. Iodine helps in the chemical synthesis of cholesterol, thus checking its build up in arteries. Extra fat in the body is also burnt by Iodine. It increases the heart rate as well as urinary calcium excretion.
Deficiency Indicators: When the amount of the thyroid hormone in the serum is decreased, the pituitary gland releases a thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) which causes the thyroid gland to produce more cells and to increase in size in an attempt to manufacture more hormones. This leads to enlargement of thyroid gland known as simple goitre, and swelling of feet or toes, enlarged glands, excessive hunger, neuralgic pains in the heart etc. Other may show signs of slowed reflexes, deafness, and poor learning. Iodine deficiency or total loss will affect our mental and physical activity, obesity, and hardening of blood vessels. A dietary lack of iodine may cause anemia, tireness, laziness, loss of interest in sex, a slow pulse, low blood pressure, and high blood cholesterol/triglyceride leading to heart disease.
Among children where diet lacks in iodine, cretin-a dwarfed child with mental retardation, enlarged thyroid gland, defective speech, and clumsy gait is created. His skin is rough, and hair sparse, with brittle nails, bad teeth, and anaemic.
Due to this, I am very concious about daily requirement of all essential vitamins and minerals. I am collecting lots of information regarding its natural sources, daily requirements in our body and its function in our body. I have searched some good educational sites for health information - http://www.healthvitaminsguide.com and http://www.nutrition.gov/
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